AJAX, Asynchronous JavaScript and XML is not a programming language, but a technology of development of interactive web applications. Those change their website content without necessity of complete reloading. It uses asynchronous process of websites with the help of library that is written in Javascript. Compared to classical web applications, they provide more suitable environment for the users, disadvantage is, that they require modern web browsers.


Angular is JavaScript web Framework. It focuses on single-page application creation. These apps are created with the help of HTML code, to which are inserted special formatting marks, which then define, which operations or data have to be put on given place. Angular is available freely under MIT license. Nowadays, the biggest contributor is the Google, which was its founder in 2009.


Ansible is open-source software, which creates platform for configuration management and the computer management. It combines multi-node deployment of software, configuration management and ad hoc performing tasks. Ansible uses SSH or PowerShell for the pc management in network. It has minimal demands on the installed software, for Linux nodes can manage with Python 2.4 or higher and nodes with MS Windows with PowerShell 3.0 or higher.

Apache Cassandra

Apache Cassandra is open-source, distributed database system. It is NoSQL system and it saves wide columns. It serves for the processing of great volume of data throughout commodity servers. It offers high availability with the absence of failure through one point. Cassandra offers robust support of clusters throughout different data centres with asynchronous replication without the control computer. It allows the low latency of operations for all the clients.

Apache Flink

Apache Flink is open-source Framework for streaming processing, which was developed by Apache Software Foundation. The core of Apache Flink is engine for distributed streaming of data flow, which is written in Java and Scala. Flink executes programs of data flow in data parallel pipeline model. Pipeline runtime system used in Flink allows bulk or batch services execution and streaming programs processing. Furthermore, Flink has native support from iterative algorithms.

Apache Hadoop

Apache Hadoop is a file of open-source tools, which have a goal to simplify the network usage of many computers to solving problems, which include significant volumes of data and calculations. It offers software Framework for distributed saving and processing of big data with the help of programming model MapReduce.

Apache Kafka

Apache Kafka is open-source software platform for stream processing, which was developed by Apache Software Foundation. It is written in Scala and Java. Projects tries to create unified platforms with high throughput and low latency for data flow processing in the real time.

Apache Tomcat

Apache Tomcat, often called Tomcat Server, is an open-source Java Servlet container, which is developed by Apache Software Foundation. Tomcat implements a few JAVA EE specifications including Java servlet, JavaServer Pages (JSP), Java EL or WebSocket. It offers purely Java http web server, on which is possible to execute code written in Java.


Badger is a simple, fast embeddable database written purely in the Go language. It has been developed by Dgraph Labs and is available under the open source licence. It is compatible with BSD, Linux, OS X, Solaris and Windows operating systems. It is designed to be very powerful in writing and reading in the same time. Badger uses Multi-Version Concurrency Control (MVCC) and supports transactions. It triggers transactionally and competitively with the serial guarantee of isolated snapshots.


Blockchain is special type of distributed decentralized database. It has constantly expanding number of records, which are against the unauthorized interference protected from outside and from the individual nodes of peer-to-peer network.


BoltDB is an open source database built purely on Go. It is designed to store data on a mapped memory file. It is a Go package that doesn‘t need to be installed before the developer starts coding. This significantly saves the installation time and setting of the database and solving configuration problems, users and accesses. This problems can‘t be found in Bolt, as it doesn‘t have users and settings, only a filename.


Buffalo is a web Framework in Go. It‘s not trying to rediscover the wheel in processes such as routing or templates. Instead, it is a kind of glue that connects all the best packages available and allows them to be connected effectively.


At the beginning of the 70’s in the 20th century, for the need of the operating system Unix, was developed C, programming language, by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie. Even though it is relatively old language, it is one of the most popular programming languages nowadays. It is one of the most used languages in software system area and it is widespread when creating apps. It is low-level, compiled and relatively minimalistic language.


C# pronounced in English is a C sharp, which literally means CIS in music, is high-level object-oriented programming language, which was developed by Microsoft simultaneously with the .NET Framework platform. Later, the language was approved by the standardized commissions ECMA and ISO. Language C# comes from the languages C++ and Java, and is therefore indirect descendant of language C, from which in many ways acquires its syntax.


C++ is multi paradigmatic programming language. It was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup and other programmers in Bell Labs AT&T as expansion of the C language. C++ supports wider scale of paradigms, programming styles, among which belongs procedural programming, object-oriented programming and generic programming. It can’t be said, that it is only object-oriented language. It is one of the most spread programming languages.


Clojure is modern dialect of programming language Lisp. It is a universal language, which supports functional programming. It focuses mainly on simplifying the multi-threaded app development. For its run uses runtime environment JVM or CLR. It sticks to the philosophy of a code, which acts as data and implements sophisticated Lisp macrosystem.

Cloud Foundry

Cloud Foundry is open-source multi-cloud Pass application, i. e. platform as a service. It is managed by Cloud Foundry Foundation. Software was originally developed by VMware company.


CouchDB is open-source document-oriented database system, which is written in Erlang programming language and designed for simple horizontal scalability and local replication throughout different devices. Commercial subjects as CouchBase and Cloudant support CouchDB.


Dart is a programming language, which was originally developed by Google and then was given the ECMA standard. It is used for building web, server and mobile applications.


Delphi is integrated graphic development environment from the Borland company, which is meant for app creation on MS Windows platform in Object Pascal language and it is also object-oriented programming language, which has developed from the Object Pascal. Delphi is the language alternative as is the Visual Basic and offers fast and quality development.


Docker is a computer program that enables virtualization at the level of the operating system, the so-called containerization. It was first released in 2013 and it is developed by Docker, Inc.


Elasticsearch is full-text search, which is based on Apache Lucene. It has RESTful interface and can offer high availability, speed and scalability. It is being developed in Java and can communicate with it with the usage of web interface. It spreads with the usage of Apache license freely.


Firebird, i. e. Firebird SQL, is in IT the name of relational database implementation. It is multiplatform, which means, it runs on different Unix systems including Linus or even on MS Windows. Firebird originated in 2000 on the base of open source InterBase database, which was created by Borland company.



GIT is a distributed version management system created by Linus Torvalds to develop the Linux kernel. Git influenced the Bit Keeper project which was previously used to develop the Linux kernel and Monotone. Currently, GIT is widespread among known projects, it is used for the Linux kernel, X.Org or Ruby on Rails. The project is managed by Junio Haman and distributed under GPL version 2. It is an open source software.


Go (often called Golang) is compiled paradigm programming language, which was created by the Google Inc. in 2007. The original authors are Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike and Ken Thompson. It belongs with static typed languages with derived syntax from language C. It is based on the language Oberon. Concurrent processing takes over from the Newsqueak. The aim of this language was to learn from the past mistakes and predict the future problems.


Haskell is standardized functional programming language. It uses the principal of lazy evaluation and its name is in honour of the logic Haskell Curry. It evolves very fast and especially because of the Hugs and GHC implementations.


HBase is open-source nonrelational distributed database that is designed based on the Bigtable by Google and written in Java. It is developed as a part of Apache Hadoop project and within Apache Software Foundation. It runs on HDFS, i. e. Hadoop Distributed File System and ensures functionalities in a Bigtable style for Hadoop.


Heroku is a cloud PaaS platform (Platform as a Service), which supports a few programming languages. It is one of the first cloud platforms, because it was being developed already from June 2007. In that time, it only supported Ruby but now it includes the Java, Node.js, Scala, Closure, Python, PHP and Go support. From that reason it is called “polyglot platform”, because it allows developers to build, execute and scale applications the similar way throughout all languages. Heroku was bought in 2010 by Salesforcel.com company.


Hibernate is Framework, which is written in Java. It allows object-relational mapping (ORM). It can simplify the data retention of objects after finishing the data’s run. It is one of the Java Persistence API (JPA) implementation. The original creator of Hibernate is Gavin King, who then with his Hibernate went to the JBoss company. In 2006, the JBoss company was taken over by Red Hat company, which continued with the framework’s development.


InterBase is a name of the proprietary relational database developed by Borland. InterBase is available for Microsoft Windows, Linux and Solaris operating systems. In 2000 it was briefly released as an open source and on these principles a Firebird database server was created. Subsequently Borland company ended the open development and returned to the closed model.


J2EE, or in the newest versions of Java Platform, Enterprise Edition or just Java EE, is a JAVA platform, which is intended for the development and operation of the business information systems and applications. The basis of this platform is SE platform.

Java for Android

Java for Android

Java is an object-oriented programming language independent of the platform used to create native applications for Android. It is a popular programming language developed by Sun Microsystems, now owned by Oracle. Java contains many of its predecessors’ powerful tools, such as C or C++ while trying to avoid their shortcomings.


JavaScript is object-oriented multiplatform scripted language.


Jenkins is open-source automation server, which is written in Java. Jenkins helps automate part of the process of software development with continual integration and simplifies technical aspects of continual deliveries. It is a server system, which runs on servlet containers as is Apache Tomcat.


Jetty is a http server in Java and Java Servlet container. Whilst web servers are often connected with ensuring the access to documents, Jetty is often used for communication between two machines, usually with bigger software framework. Jetty is an open-source project by Eclipse Foundation.


JMS or Java Message Service API is MOM (Message Oriented Middleware) middleware oriented on Java messages, which sends messages between two or more clients. It is implementation, which has the task to solve problem between producer and consumer. MOM products ensure integration among applications. They allow the business components to function together and to be able to create comprehensive, flexible and reliable system. They are completely different components but thanks to the mediator, they can communicate together with the help of messages.


jQuery is javascript library, which has a wide browser support and it emphasizes most importantly the interaction between JavaScript and HTML. John Resig published it in January 2006 on BarCamp NYC. It is an open source software licensed under MIT. jQuery’s popularity has risen dramatically during a short time and is currently one of the most favourite tools while developing websites and applications.


JSP (JavaServer Pages) is a technology, which is intended for the development of dynamical HTML pages and is based on the Java language. Originally it was developed in Sun, then it was bought by an Oracle company. When creating, primarily are used HTML and Java, which is inserted in the HTML code. On the side of the server is then inserted the generated HTML file instead of Java, so it is a similar principal as in the PHP case. The extension of the files is .jsp.


Kotlin is statically typed programming language. It runs on Java Virtual machine or JVM. It is possible to compile it to JavaScript. The main developer of this programming language is a team of programmers from the JetBrains company, who works from a branch in St. Petersburg. The name of the language is derived from one of the Russian islands near St. Petersburg, which is called Kotlin. The magazine Dr. Dobb’s Journal named Kotlin the programming language of the month in January 2012. Although Kotlin is not compatible with Java, it was developed so it would provide interoperability with Java’s libraries and it even depends on some libraries of the core.


Kubernetes is an open-source system for container orchestration for automatic deployment, scaling and container application management. Originally it was designed by Google and now is managed by Cloud Native Computing Foundation. Its goal is to create a platform for automatized deployment, scaling and operations on application containers throughout host clusters. It works with wide scale of container tools as is e. g. Docker.


Laravel is open source PHP Framework, which is intended for web application development. Taylor Otwell is its developer. First release was in 2012. It has a MIT license. It uses MVC software architecture, i. e. Model-View-Controller. It is typical with being optimized pro real world and offers many procedures, which are often used during the web application development.


LESS is dynamic preprocessor style language, which can be compiled to CSS (Cascading Style Sheets). It can be executed by client or server. It was designed by Alexis Sellier and it was influenced by SASS and it also influenced the new SCSS syntax, which uses block syntax that is similar to CSS.


Magneto is an e-commerce platform written in PHP. Originally, the software was developed by Varien. The first release dates back to 2008. The purpose of the framework is to increase user involvement, to improve the orientation on the webpage, better conversion and generated earnings for shop owners.


MapReduce is a programming model and a process implementation and generating of big-data sets with parallel distributed cluster algorithm linked to this programming model.



MariaDB is a relational database. It is a fork – that means it is a successor version of MySQL developed by community. This branch was created primarily to maintain the GNU GPL free open source software licence. The initiative which stood behind the creation of this branch came from original MySQL developers. They feared for a future heading of this software after it had been bought by Oracle. Contributors involved in the development have to share their copyright with MariaDB Foundation.

Microsoft SQL Server

Microsoft SQL Server is relational database and analytic system developed by Microsoft. Database server is a software product and its primary function is saving and displaying data, which other software applications require. Those can be executed on the same computer or on other computers across the network. Microsoft offers different editions, which are meant for different end-users from single-use applications to extensive applications connected to the internet, which have many users.


MongoDB is multiplatform documentation database. It belongs to a group of NoSQL databases and instead of traditional model of relational databases, which use tables, they use documents similar to JSON format (MongoDB indicates them as BSON) and dynamical database scheme. This enables the creation and integration of data for apps simply and faster. Software has open source license and is published under GNU Affero General Public Licence and Apache license.


MySQL is a data base control system that applies a relational database model. It was created by the Swedish company called MySQL AB, currently owned by Oracle Corporation. The main authors are Michael “Monty” Widenius and David Axmark. MySQL is considered to be one of the most successful pioneer of dual licensing, because it is available both under a free GPL and paid commercial licence.


.NET Framework is technology platform in software products. It was developed by Microsoft company and it is primarily intended for Microsoft Windows. It contains wide library of classes named Framework Class Library (FCL). It allows interoperability across a few programming languages, i. e. every language can use code written in another. Programs written for .NET Framework are executed in software environment, which is named as Common Language Runtime (CLR), application virtual machine, which offers services as security, memory management and solving exceptions. Therefore, the pc code, written in framework .NET, is called controlled managed code.



Nette is an open source framework designed to create web applications in PHP. Its mission is primarily the elimination of safety risks. It supports AJAX, DRY, KISS, MVC and the code re-usability. It uses event-controlled programming and is largely based on the use of components. The original author of the framework is David Grudl, its subsequent development is supervised by Nette Foundation. Nette Framework is an open source software offered under the GNU GPL licences and Nette licence which is alternative to the original four-stroke BSD licence.


Nginx is a software web server that has load management and reverse proxy with open source code. It works with http, https, SMTP, POP3, IMAP or SSL protocols. The focus is mainly on high performance, along with low memory requirements. Nginx is available on Unix-like systems under the BSD, such as UNIX, Linux, but is also available for Solaris, macOS or MS Windows.

Node JS

Node JS is an open source software system, which has been created for the purposes of writing highly scaled internet applications, mainly of web servers. Programs are written in the JavaScript language, they use the model of events and asynchronous operations for the minimal processor usage and maximum effectiveness.

OAuth 2

OAuth is a new generation of the OAuth protocol. It was originally created in 2006 and it is an open protocol aimed to ensure the authentication and authorisation, unlike other services’ API. OAuth 2 focuses primarily on the simplicity of client development, offering specific authorisation procedures for web applications, desktop applications, mobile phones and other smart devices.


Objective-C, often signified by a shorter term ObjC, is object-oriented programming language, which is implemented as expansion of language C, to which the system adds sending messages from Smalltalk language.


OmniGraffle is an application designed to create diagrams and digital illustration on macOS and iOS. It was created by The OmniGroup. It is used to create graphics and visualisations. The app contains several design tools, including WYSIWYG view, where you can create objects by dragging the mouse. It also offers the possibility of adding notes, creating documentation and specification for all prototypes and mock-ups. OmniGraffle’s main competitor is Microsoft Visio.


OpenStack is an open-source platform for cloud solutions. This platform is usually deployed in the IaaS form (infrastructure-as-a-service), where virtual servers and other resources are mediated to customers.


Perl (Practical Extraction and Reporting Language) is interpreted programming language, which was created by Larry Wall in 1987. During that, as the internet evolved, the Pearl became significantly popular tool for the CGI scripts produce.



The first web pages were created static, i.e. their content could not change without the coder and without intervening in the code. Since then, the situation has changed significantly, and majority of web pages is created dynamically, with their changing content generated on the server side. One of the languages used for pages generation is PHP (PHP Hypertext Pre-processor).


PHPUnit is a Framework designed to write unit tests in the PHP programming language. It belongs to the family of unit tests that are built on the xUnit architecture.


PL/SQL is a procedural superstructure of the SQL language by the Oracle company, which is based on the programming language Ada. It is widespread and some of their elements were taken over even by other relational databases. The base building element of PL/SQL is the block. Those can be nested one to another. Typically, the individual block executes one logic action to the given program. The structure of block:


PostgreSQL is object-relational database system, which is published under the MIT license and it is therefore an open source software. Global community of firms and developers participate in its development. Primarily it is developed for GNU/Linux or general Unix systems, but even exists packages that are intended for the Windows platform.


Python is multi-level script programming language, which was introduced by Guido van Rossum in 1991. It includes the dynamical control of data types and supports different programming paradigms: object-oriented programming, imperative programming, procedural programming or functional programming.


React is javascript library, which is designed for building user interface. It is managed by Facebook and a community of individual developers and companies.


Redis is a NoSQL in-memory key-value repository. It allows you to create atomic operations over built-in data types. It isn’t a cache tool, but a complex repository which can be used simultaneously as a queue, stack or message broker. Regarding the fact, that Redis is available as the Azure service, it can be used as a distributed cache with low latency, high permeability and availability.


Redux is an open-source JavaScript library used to manage the state of the application. It is one of libraries most commonly used with React or Angular to build user interfaces. It was created by Dan Abramov and Andrew Clark and was inspired by the Flux architecture of Facebook.

Rest API

REST, or the representational state transfer, is a way to simply create, read, edit or delete information from the server using simple http calls.

Ruby on Rails

Ruby on Rails is Framework, which is used for web apps connected to database development, which are built-up on the model-view-controller architecture. This framework was created by David Heinemeier Hansson, Danish programmer, within his work on project Basecamp and was firstly released in July 2004. The main breakthrough happened in 2006, when Apple announced, that it will distribute Ruby on Rails with new version of their own operating system OS X v10.5 “Leopard”.


SAP HANA is the SAP’S application and database platforms. It allows the rapid processing of larger data volumes in real time in their current immediate analysis. This makes it possible to obtain a very quick response to questions, the processing of which can take thousands of times longer in a typical session database.


SASS, or the Syntactically awesome style sheets is a language for style creation originally designed by Hampton Catlin and developed by Natalie Weizenbaum. Subsequently, SASS was extended to include a simple SassScript scripting language that is used in SASS files.


Scala is multi-paradigm programming language. It was designed so it would integrate features of object-oriented and functional programming. The name origins from English word „scalable“, therefore Scala was developed to grow with the demands from users.


Selenium is a tool used to create automatic testing of web applications. This tool consists of several components (Selenium IDE, Selenium RC, Selenium WebDriver, Selenium Grid) that complement each other. It has been developed in Java programming language and can be used to test different programming languages, including C#, Groovy, Java, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby or Scala.


SOA, or the service-oriented architecture, is a software design style for which services are made available to other components though a network communication protocol. The basic principle of a service-oriented architecture is that is isn’t dependent on suppliers, products and technologies. The service is a discrete functionality unit that can be accessed remotely and can be run and updated independently, such as online credit card statement.


Spring is a popular open-source Framework for developing J2EE applications. Its first version has been written by Rod Johnson who published it with his book Expert One-on-One J2EE Design and Development in October 2002. It was first released under the Apache 2.0 licence in June 2003.


Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services, or SSAS is an online analytic processing (OLAP) and data mining tool in Microsoft SQL Server. Companies use this tool to analyse information that can be spread between multiple databases or in separate tables or files.


Apache Subversion, or formerly Subversion, in short SVN is a system in charge of managing and verging source codes. It replaces an older CVS tool, with which it retains a similar way and style of work but tries to get rid of its shortcomings, such as the impossibility of moving or copying directories, the time and space demands of branching and tagging.



Swift is programming language from the Apple company, which is intended for the development on platforms MacOS and iOS. It is multi-paradigm, compiled and open source. It was supposed to be an alternative for the Objective-C language, in contrast to it, it shouldn’t allow so many mistakes of programmer. It can cooperate with existing frameworks Cocoa Touch and Cocoa. It is compiled with the help of LLVM and in this program it is possible to combine it with languages with C, Objective-C and Objective-C++.


Symfony is a web application Framework. This Framework is used for the development of web applications for PHP based on the MVC design. All this Framework is largely inspired by other web application frameworks, including Ruby on Rails, Django or Spring. Symfony is an open-source Framework distributed under the MIT licence, its development is sponsored by the French firm Sensio Labs in Paris.


Vagrant is an open-source software used to build and maintain a portable virtual environment for software development, such as VirtualBox, Hyper-V, Docker containers, Vmware or AWS which try to simplify the software configuration management and virtualisation. It is thus attempting to achieve higher development productivity. Vagrant is written in Ruby, but its ecosystem supports development in different languages, such as PHP, Python, C#, Java or Javascript.

Vue JS

Vue.js was created by Evan You, after he worked for Google, and used on many projects AngularJS. Author has wanted to use what has been working on Angular and on these basics, he has built something very relieved. The original release happened in February 2014.


WordPress is an open-source editorial publishing system written in PHP and MySQL. It is available under the GNU GPL licence. It has a wide user and development community.


Yii is a relatively young framework for PHP which is open-source and relative powerful. It is used to develop large web applications. The emphasis is mainly on pragmatism, re-usability and simplicity of use. It is a strictly object-oriented system. All components are independent, configurable and extensible.


Zend is an open-source Framework that is object-oriented and is designed to simplify the development of web applications. It is implemented inPHP5 and licensed under the New BSD license. It uses modular architecture to enable developers to use only the components they need.